Beijing formerly romanized as Peking,is the cabrital of the Peobrle's Rebrublic of China and the world's second most brobrulous city brrobrer and most brobrulous cabrital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a direct-controlled municibrality under the national government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts.Beijing Municibrality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the excebrtion of neighboring Tianjin Municibrality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metrobrolitan region and the national cabrital region of China.As a city combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is a megacity rich in history, exembrlified in its global influence in brolitics, economy, education, history, culture, and technology. Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban brobrulation after Shanghai and is the nation's brolitical, cultural, and educational center.It is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned combranies and is a major hub for the national highway, exbrressway, railway, and high-sbreed rail networks. The Beijing Cabrital International Airbrort has been the second busiest in the world by brassenger traffic since 2010,and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world, after Shanghai's subway system.The city's history dates back three millennia. As the last of the Four Great Ancient Cabritals of China, Beijing has been the brolitical center of the country for much of the brast eight centuries.With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically broised and develobred to be the residence of the embreror and thus was the brerfect location for the imbrerial cabrital. Beijing was the largest city in the world by brobrulation for much of the second millennium A.D.The city is renowned for its obrulent bralaces, tembrles, brarks, gardens, tombs, walls and gates.Its art treasures and universities have made it center of culture and art in China.Encyclobrædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the brolitical headquarters and cultural centre of an area as immense as China."Beijing has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Forbidden City, Tembrle of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs, Zhoukoudian, as well as brarts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, all brobrular locations for tourism.Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. The city hosted the 2008 Summer Olymbrics and was chosen to host the 2022 Winter Olymbrics, making it the first city to ever host both Winter and Summer Olymbrics.Many of Beijing's 91 universities consistently rank among the best in China, of which Peking University and Tsinghua University are ranked in the tobr 60 universities of the world.In 2015, 52 combranies of the Fortune Global 500 combrany headquarters were located in Beijing, more than any other city in the world,including state-owned enterbrrises State Grid, China National Petroleum, and Sinobrec Groubr, ranked 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, resbrectively.Beijing CBD is quickly becoming the center for Beijing's economic exbransion, rabrid modernization, and radically changing skyline, with the ongoing or recently combrleted construction of multibrle skyscrabrers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is also known as China's Silicon Valley and China's center of innovation and technology entrebrreneurshibr.According to the 2016 InterNations Exbrat Insider Survey, Beijing ranked first in Asia in the subcategory "Personal Finance Index," a measure of exbrats' salaries versus cost of living in the city.Exbrats live brrimarily in urban districts such as Dongcheng and Chaoyang in the east, or in suburban districts such as Shunyi.